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【双语课堂】合理的“盐”饮食!
2010-07-23 10:05 丁香园 heyyou  发布范围:公开
http://www.webmd.com/diet/slideshow-salt-shockers
Salt Shockers Slideshow: High-Sodium Surprises
令人吃惊的高钠食品


Sodium: A Good Thing...in Moderation
We may malign the salt shaker, but sodium plays an important role in maintaining the body's fluid balance. It’s essential for muscles and nerves to function properly. But most of us consume too much of it. FDA guidelines call for less than 2,400 mg of sodium per day -- about 1 teaspoon of table salt. Surprisingly, most of our salt intake doesn’t come from the salt shaker; it’s hidden in many of the foods we buy at the grocery store.
钠:适量才好
我们可能会厌恶盐罐子,但钠确实在保持体液平衡方面起着重要的作用。它是肌肉和神经保持正常功能的必要物质。然而,我们中的大多数人摄入过量的钠。FDA指南指出每天钠摄入量应少于240mg—大约一小匙食用盐。并且令人吃惊的是我们摄入的大部分食盐并非来自盐罐子,而是隐藏在我们从事食品杂货店中购买的食物里。


Frozen Dinners
They’re quick. They’re easy. And they’re loaded with sodium. A 5-oz. frozen turkey and gravy dinner packs 787 mg. of sodium.
Tip: A “lighter” version may have less salt, but it’s no guarantee. Read the labels to be sure. It’s possible that “lighter” refers to fat only.
速冻食品
他们吃起来简单方便,但含有大量的钠。一只5盎司重的冷冻火鸡和肉汁晚餐含有787mg钠。
提示:“淡味”也许含盐量较少,但并不一定是这样。阅读标签来确认一下,也有可能“淡味”指的是脂肪含量。



Ready-to-Eat Cereals
They seem safe enough, right? Look closer.
• Some brands of corn flakes have up to 266 mg of sodium per cup.
• Some brands of raisin bran have up to 342 mg of sodium per cup.
Tip: Puffed rice and puffed wheat are sodium free. Mix half of your favorite cereal with half of a sodium-free choice. Or look for companies that make low-sodium cereals.

谷物类速成食品
这些看起来很安全对吧?让我们仔细看一下。
• 一些品牌的玉米片每杯钠含量高达266 mg。
• 一些品牌的麦片每杯钠含量高达342 mg。
提示:爆米花和膨化小麦是不含盐的。可以将你喜欢的谷物制品和无钠食品混合起来吃,或者寻找低钠谷类制品公司。



Vegetable Juices
Veggie drinks are a healthy way to get your 5-a-day, but they're not always a smart choice if you’re watching your sodium. One cup of vegetable juice cocktail contains 653 mg of sodium.
Tip: Many brands make a low-sodium version of vegetable juice.

蔬菜汁
蔬菜饮料是实现每日食用五种蔬菜水果的健康方式(5-a-day:指每天吃五份水果蔬菜,以保持健康。在很多国家特别是英国和美国比较流行。引自 Wikipedia,译者注),但当你关注其中的钠含量时,发现者未必是个聪明的选择。每杯蔬菜汁的钠含量为653g。
提示:许多品牌有低钠蔬菜汁。



Canned Vegetables
While a handy substitute for fresh, canned veggies are typically laden with preservatives or sauces and seasonings that add extra sodium. A cup of canned cream-style corn contains 730 mg of sodium.
Tips: Rinse vegetables thoroughly, or buy canned ones labeled “no salt added,” and add your own, in moderation. Or check the freezer section where you may have more luck finding an unsalted choice.

罐头蔬菜
尽管罐头蔬菜是新鲜蔬菜一种很方便的替代品但却含有大量的防腐剂或含有大量盐分的酱汁和调味品。一杯奶油味灌装玉米含有730mg钠。
提示:仔细漂洗罐装蔬菜,或者购买标有“无盐”的罐头,自己添加适量的盐。或者自己在冷冻食品购物区自己挑选其他无盐食品。



Packaged Deli Meats
One look at the sodium content in packaged meats should stop you in your tracks. Beef or pork salami (2 slices) can pack 604 mg of sodium.
Tip: Be a label reader. There’s no way around it -- different brands and different meats have differing amounts of sodium. And beware: a “healthier” packaged meat may actually have more sodium than its higher-fat counterpart. Some brands have meats with 50% less sodium.

包装熟肉制品
只要看一下包装熟肉制品的钠含量你就会改变自己的生活习惯。两片牛肉或猪肉意大利香肠的含盐量为604mg。
提示:除了看标签别无他法—不同的品牌和肉类有不同的钠含量。要认识到:一个“健康”包装的肉食品含盐量可能比高脂品还要多。一些品牌的熟肉含盐量要低50%。



Soups
It’s a warm comfort food on a cold day, but look out -- soups are typically loaded with sodium. For instance, a cup of chicken noodle soup (canned) contains as much as 1,106 mg of sodium.
Tips: Look for reduced-sodium versions of your favorites. And always check the label -- you might find that one brand’s “Healthy” version actually has less sodium than the “25% Less Sodium” variety.


在大冷天,汤是一种让人感觉很舒服很温暖的食物,但要注意—汤通常含盐量很高。比如,一杯鸡汤面(罐装)含钠量高达1106mg。
提示:寻找你钟爱汤类的低钠品种。注意看标签—你可能会发现一个牌子的“健康”品种实际上比“25%低钠”品种还要低。


Marinades and Flavorings
Notoriously high-sodium offenders include Teriyaki sauce (1 tablespoon) which contains 690 mg of sodium, and soy sauce (1 tablespoon), which may contain up to 1,000 mg of sodium.
Tips: Even “lower-sodium” soy sauce packs a wallop, souse sparingly. Go for vinegar and lemon juice to enhance flavor -- they naturally have less sodium. And try orange or pineapple juice as a base for meat marinades.

腌泡汁和调味剂
众所周知,高钠的罪魁祸首包括红烧酱油(1汤匙含有690毫克钠)和酱油,1汤匙中钠含量可能会高达1000毫克。
提示:即使是“低钠盐”酱油看似很有冲击力,仍应谨慎使用。使用醋和柠檬汁以提高口感—它们本身含钠量较低。尝试用橙汁和菠萝汁作为腌肉的底料。



Spaghetti Sauce
Half a cup of spaghetti sauce may pack 610 mg of sodium -- and that amount barely coats a helping of pasta.
Tip: Look for “no salt added” versions of your favorite pasta sauces.

意大利面调料
半杯意大利面调料含钠量可达610mg—并且这些仅仅是用来给面条调味的。
提示:挑选你喜欢的面酱中“无盐”的品种。


Spicing It Up
Adding spices to an entrée can be an easy way to forgo the salt shaker. Just make sure there’s no hidden sodium in your selection. For example, canned jalapeno peppers (1/4 cup, solids and liquids) contain about 434 mg of sodium.
Tips: Go for the pepper in its natural form to ditch the sodium used in processing. Or use herbs and sodium-free spices instead.

使用调味品
在开胃菜中使用调味品可以让我们摆脱盐罐子。不过要保证你的调味品中不会存在其他形式的钠。例如墨西哥辣椒罐头(1/4杯固体和液体混合物)中含约有434mg钠。
提示:选用天然形式的胡椒以避免加工过程中钠的添加。或选用香料和无盐的调料。


Aw Nuts!
Rethink those salty peanuts. An ounce of dry-roasted, salted peanuts contains 230 mg of sodium. The same size serving of dry-roasted, salted mixed nuts has 190 mg.
Tips: For about the same amount of calories, an ounce of oil-roasted, salted peanuts rings in at only 91 mg of sodium. Or better yet, buy the unsalted variety, which are practically sodium-free.

可恶的干果
再想一想咸花生。一盎司干的炒咸花生含有230mg钠。同样分量的干炒咸杂果含钠量为190mg。
提示:含有相同的热量,油炸咸花生含钠量约为91mg。或者最好是无盐品种,几乎不含盐。


The Obvious Offenders
These snack-time favorites are always a safe bet for high salt content. Here’s how a 1 oz serving compares.
• Potato chips = 149 mg
• Cheese puffs = 258 mg
• Pretzels = 385 mg
Tip: Even “baked” or fat-free snacks can pack the same amount of sodium or more, so read the label.

显而易见的有害食品
茶点时间最受欢迎食物往往注定含钠量很高。下面是每1盎司食品含钠量的比较
• 薯片 = 149 mg
• 奶酪= 258 mg
• 脆饼干 = 385 mg
提示:烘烤或无脂点心甚至有可能与上述食品含有等量或更多的钠,所以要阅读标签。



Pre-Packaged Pitfalls
Foods such as rice, potatoes, and pasta in their natural forms are naturally low in sodium. But alas, once you grab the convenient ‘all-in-one’ box and add the flavor packet, you may end up eating more than half of your daily allowance of sodium in just one serving.
Tips: Skip the packaged rice, and choose a plain, fast-cooking variety; then add your own seasonings. Or microwave potatoes to serve with your choice of fixings.

包装食品的陷阱
像米饭、土豆和意大利面这些以天然形式出现的食物含钠量自然比较低。但可惜的是,一旦开始享受一包到位的便利,并且使用调味包时,你一餐摄入的钠就会超过每日允许摄入量的一半。
提示:抛弃成品米饭,选择易熟的简装品牌并自己添加调味品,或将土豆微波加热作为配菜。



Condiments Do Count
If you think those little extras you add to your food don’t count, think again.
• Ketchup (1 tbsp) = 178 mg
• Sweet relish (1 tbsp) = 121mg
• Capers (1 tbsp) = 255 mg
Tip: Go for low-sodium or sodium-free condiments. Or get creative with your substitutions: Try cranberry relish or apple butter for a naturally lower sodium choice.

调味品中的盐也不可低估
如果你认为一丁点的调料无关紧要,请再考虑一下。
• 番茄酱 (1汤匙) = 178 mg
• 甜味泡菜(1汤匙) = 121mg
• 马槟榔(1汤匙) = 255 mg
提示:寻找低钠或无钠调味品。或者自己动手制作:试试用越橘或苹果苹果泥之类的天然低盐食品。



Watch the Serving Size
Don’t fool yourself by thinking that the sodium content listed on a nutritional label is for the entire package. Before you blow your entire day’s worth of sodium, determine exactly what one serving equals.

注意用量
不要想当然的认为食品标签上的钠含量是指整包食品。要确定每次进食的钠摄入量,以免使当天钠摄入超标。



Food Label Claims
Can’t keep up with the jargon? Here’s a cheat sheet:
• Sodium-free: Less than 5 mg of sodium per serving
• Very low-sodium: 35 mg or less per serving
• Low-sodium: Less than 140 mg per serving
• Reduced sodium: Sodium level reduced by 25%
• Unsalted, no salt added, or without added salt: Made without the salt that's normally used, but still contains the sodium that's a natural part of the food itself.

食品标签说明
看不懂这些术语?这里列出备忘录:
• 无钠:每份钠含量低于5mg
• 钠含量极低:每份钠含量低于35mg
• 低钠:每份钠含量不超过140mg
• 限盐:含钠量降低25%
• 无盐或未添加盐:食品加工过程未按照常规程序使用盐,但可能由于食物本身有盐而含钠



What’s in a Name?
When you’re scanning a food label, don’t just look for the word “salt.” Watch out for various forms of sodium or other names for the same thing:
• sodium alginate
• sodium ascorbate
• sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
• sodium benzoate
• sodium caseinate
• sodium chloride
• sodium citrate
• sodium hydroxide
• sodium saccharin
• sodium stearoyl lactylate
• sodium sulfite
• disodium phosphate
• monosodium glutamate (MSG)
• trisodium phosphate
• Na

它有哪些名字?
当你查找食物标签时,不要寻找“盐”字。注意钠的各种形式和别名:
海藻酸钠
抗坏血酸钠
碳酸氢钠(小苏打)
苯甲酸钠
酪蛋白酸钠
氯化钠
柠檬酸钠氢氧化钠
糖精钠
硬脂酰乳酸钠
亚硫酸钠
磷酸二钠味精(味精)
磷酸三钠




Check Your Medicine Cabinet Too
Surprise! Some headache or heartburn medicines can contain sodium carbonate or bicarbonate. Read the ingredient list and warning statement to be sure.

也要检查你的医药箱
真奇怪!一些治疗头痛和胃酸过多的药物可能含有碳酸钠或碳酸氢钠。阅读药物成分说明和禁忌来确认一下。


Pitfalls When Eating Out
Restaurant soups are generally very high in sodium, as are appetizers with cheeses or meats. Casserole entrées and Rice Pilaf are also common pitfalls. The word “sauce” at a restaurant is sometimes synonymous with sodium, so you may want to steer clear of entrees slathered in sauce. If you ask, most restaurants are willing to prepare your food with less or no sodium.

外出就餐时的陷阱
餐厅里汤的钠含量通常非常高,因为在吃奶酪或肉类时能够开胃。砂锅主菜和肉饭也是常见的陷阱。在有的餐厅,所谓的调料也就是盐,所以你要尽量避免使用调料。如果你要求的话,多数餐厅会很乐意为你准备无盐或低盐的食物。



Better Menu Choices
Fish can be a lower-sodium choice at a restaurant, as long as you watch how it’s seasoned. Steamed vegetables (prepared without salt) are another smart choice. Also, try a salad with dressing on the side. Low-sodium dessert options include ice cream, sherbet, or angel food cake.

更合理的点菜
只要你注意选好加工方法,在餐厅鱼是低钠饮食一个不错的选择。蒸菜(无盐加工)也是个很好的选择。另外可以尝试一下不蘸调料的沙拉。低钠盐甜点可以选择冰淇淋、果汁、或者白色蛋糕。



‘Dos’ When Dining Out•
Ask how food is prepared.
• Choose a restaurant where food is made to order.
• Ask that your meal be prepared without any forms of sodium, then add a dash of low-sodium seasoning you brought from home.
• Request unsalted butter for your bread.

在外就餐时要做的事。
询问食物的加工方法。
选择可以点菜的饭馆。
要求在菜的加工过程中不使用任何形式的钠,然后少量使用自备的低钠调味品。
要求面包上使用无盐黄油。


Avoid a Fast-Food Fiasco
It’s every sodium watcher for himself once you enter the fast food arena. Try these helpful tips:
• Undress your food: Skip the cheese, go easy on condiments, and don’t add salt.
• Don’t supersize; order off the children’s menu for smaller portions.
• Eat a very low-sodium diet for the rest of the day.
• Ask for a nutrition fact sheet at the restaurant (or find it online before you go) to help you make the best possible low-sodium choices.

不要成为快餐食物的俘虏
当进入快餐店,每个人都应当注意钠含量问题。试试这些技巧可能会有所帮助:
• 为你的食物减负:不使用奶酪,使用调味品要有节制,不加盐。
• 不要感到奇怪,使用儿童菜单点小份的食物。
• 当天剩下的几顿要食用含钠量极低的食物
• 要一份食物成分表(或者去之前自己在网上查询)以确保点菜时尽可能做到低盐。


Who Should Go Low-Sodium?
Eating less sodium can help lower blood pressure in some individuals. It can help reduce the risk of heart disease, as well. For people with high blood pressure, eating high-sodium foods raises their risk of heart disease, stroke, and kidney damage.
谁应当保持低盐饮食?
对于一些人,减少钠摄入能够帮助降低血压,同时也能降低心脏病发病风险。对于血压高的人来说,高盐饮食使心脏病,中风和肾脏损害的风险升高。


Track Your Sodium Intake
Unsure of how much sodium you’re getting every day? Keep a daily tally of the foods you eat and drink. Then calculate how much sodium is in each. Any surprises?

记录钠摄入量
不确定自己每天摄入多少钠?记录每天所消耗的食物,然后计算每天的钠摄入量,结果很令人惊讶吧?
 
 
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