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【双语课堂】常见的脚部疾病
2010-09-10 10:59 丁香园 lisuxizh  发布范围:公开
Slideshow: Pictures of Common Foot Problems
常见的脚部疾病

Avoid a Sandal Scandal
避免穿凉鞋出丑?

Is a bunion, corn, ingrown toenail or a bad case of athlete's foot causing you foot pain or embarrassment? Keep your feet healthy by learning to recognize and treat common foot problems.
是否有因为拇趾囊肿, 鸡眼,趾甲內生或是严重的脚癣而脚疼或是感到尴尬的经历?了解常见的脚部疾病,保持好双脚的健康:

Bunion
拇指囊肿
A bony bump at the base of the big toe, a bunion causes that toe to deviate toward the others. Throwing foot bones out of alignment and producing the characteristic bump at the joint's base, a bunion can be very painful due to pressure or arthritis, and may also lead to corns. Pain relievers, pads to cushion the bunion, custom shoe inserts, or surgery may help, as will wearing roomy shoes and avoiding high heels.
拇趾囊肿是指连接大拇指的骨头肿大而向外突出。受到压力或是有关节炎症时拇指囊肿会非常的疼痛,而且可能引起鸡眼。止痛药,加些托垫,定制合脚的鞋子或是手术治疗都会有帮助,或者穿宽松的鞋子,避免穿高跟鞋。
The bunion, or misaligned bones in the big toe, is clearly visible.
拇指囊肿,大拇指的骨关节可看到明显的错位。

(Left) corn; (right) callus.
(左)鸡眼,(右)胼胝
Friction causes the thick, hardened, dead skin of corns and calluses, which form to protect sensitive skin. Appearing cone-shaped, corns point into the skin, and usually occur on areas that bear little weight. Calluses may appear anywhere there's friction, and are more diffuse. Both may be caused by ill-fitting shoes and will fade when friction stops. Moleskin pads can help relieve a corn; calluses can be trimmed or surgically corrected.
鸡眼和胼胝是皮肤由于长期受挤压或受摩擦而发生的角质性增生,摩擦使得角质增厚,变硬,形成死皮,以此来保护脆弱的皮肤。鸡眼成锥形,尖端伸入皮内,基底露于外面,经常长在受压不大的部位。而胼胝可能生长在有摩擦的任何部位,范围较广。鸡眼和胼胝都可由不合适的鞋子引起并且在停止摩擦时会逐渐减轻。一般软的棉布垫有助于减轻鸡眼的压痛,胼胝可以剪除或是手术切除。

Gout
痛风
A form of arthritis, gout is characterized by sudden pain, redness, swelling, and stiffness, usually in the large joint of the big toe. Gout can also occur in the foot, ankle, or knees. and is caused by too much uric acid (UA) in the blood, which can form hard crystals in joints. Attacks can last days or weeks, and may be treated with anti–inflammatories or UA–lowering medication. Talk to your doctor about diet changes that help break down UA.
痛风是关节炎的一种,特征是突发疼痛,红肿和僵硬,通常发生于大拇趾的大关节处。痛风也常发于足部,脚踝或是膝盖。因血液中尿酸含量过高形成结晶在关节处而引起痛风。痛风发作可能持续数日或数周之久,可以服用抗炎药或降低尿酸的药物来治疗,或就诊时请医生设计食谱以降低尿酸水平。
'Gouty toe' is characterized by swelling, redness, and stiffness and pain.
痛风脚趾 有明显的发红,肿胀,僵硬和痛感

Plantar Warts
跖疣
Plantar warts are tough, horny growths that develop on the soles of the feet. Contagious, they're caused by a virus entering through broken skin, and often spread via public pools and showers. Plantar warts are harmless and can be left untreated, but in many cases they're too painful to ignore. Topical salicylic acid may help, while burning, freezing, laser therapy, and surgical removal are more aggressive options for more severe cases.
跖疣是生长在脚底的坚硬的角质层。多数情况下是由细菌侵入破损的皮肤感染引起的,多由公共的泳池或浴室传播。跖疣无害可以不做治疗,但是多数情况下它引起的疼痛却让人难以忍受。外用水杨酸可以减轻症状,但情况严重时最好选择灼烧,冷冻,激光或手术切除。
Plantar warts look like hard, thick patches of skin with dark specks.
跖疣看上去就像是脚底上一块又硬又厚还有深色小斑点的补丁

Athlete's Foot
脚癣
A fungal infection that can cause peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores, athlete's foot is mildly contagious, passed by direct contact or by walking barefoot in areas such as locker rooms, or near pools. The fungi then grow in shoes, especially tight ones without air circulation. Athlete's foot is usually treated with topical antifungal lotions or oral medications for more severe cases.
由一种真菌感染导致的脚部疾病,可引起脱皮,发红,发痒,灼热,有时也会有水泡和溃疡。脚癣有一定的传染性,直接接触或者赤脚在更衣室或泳池周围走路都会传染。而后真菌可在鞋中生长,特别是不透气的密实的鞋子。脚癣通常可用外用的抗真菌药水治疗,更严重些的要通过口服药物来治疗。
Interdigital, or toe web infection, is the most common kind of athlete's foot.
趾间或脚趾头的感染,是脚癣中最常见的。

Fungal Nail Infection
指甲真菌感染
Occuring when microscopic fungi enter through a break in the nail, a fungal infection can make your nails thick, discolored and brittle. If left untreated, the nail infection won't go away — and can be hard to treat. Thriving in warm, wet places, the fungi can be spread from person to person. Topical creams may help mild cases but antifungal pills are your best chance of curing a severe infection.
多由真菌通过趾甲缝隙进入趾甲而感染,引起趾甲增厚,变色和变脆。如果不加治疗,趾甲的真菌感染是不会不药而愈的,反而可能更难治疗。在温暖潮湿的环境中真菌得以传播。对于一般的情况外用药膏可以治疗,但是对于严重的感染最好服用抗真菌的药片进行治疗。
Fungal infections occur in toenails more often than in fingernails.
图6 真菌感染多发生在脚趾甲。

Hammertoe
槌状趾
When toe muscles get out of balance, they can cause painful toe problems. While some people are prone to hammertoe, other risks include tight footwear. Hammertoe generally causes the middle joint of the toe to bend downward, with toes appearing raised near the foot. Well–fitted footwear with the correct amount of space in the toe box, shoe supports, and surgery may offer relief.
当脚趾的肌肉失去平衡,可能会引起令人痛苦的脚部疾病。一些人容易患上槌状趾,这也与脚部受到压迫有关。槌状趾使得脚趾中间的关节向下弯曲,使得脚趾头更接近脚底。脚部的舒适宽松的环境和手术治疗都有助于减低痛苦。
Hammertoe generally causes the middle joint of the toe to bend downward.
槌状趾通常使得脚趾中间的关节向下弯曲。

Ingrown Toenail
指甲内嵌
A toenail that has grown into the skin, an ingrown toenail can result in pain, redness, swelling, even infection. Cutting nails too short or not straight across, injury to the toenail, and wearing tight shoes are culprits. For mild cases, soak the foot in warm water, keep it clean, and wedge a small piece of cotton under the corner of the ingrown nail to lift it off the skin. Minor surgery can remove all or part of the nail.
是指脚指甲生长到肉中,指甲内嵌生长可引起疼痛,红肿或是感染。剪指甲时剪得过短或是向内剪,指甲有伤口或是穿太紧的鞋子都可能引起指甲内嵌。对于一般程度的病情,可以用热水洗脚保持洁净,并在内嵌的指甲下楔入小片的棉花使它离开皮肤。小手术可以切除全部或部分的内嵌指甲。
Ingrown toenails usually occur in the big toe.
指甲内嵌通常发生在大拇指上。

Flatfoot (Pes Planus)
扁平足
Flatfoot is characterized by the sole of the foot coming into complete or near–complete contact with the ground. It may be inherited, caused by an injury, or by a condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Flatfoot symptoms are rare, though weight gain, ill–fitting shoes, or excessive standing may cause pain. Treatment includes foot–strengthening exercises, and shoes with good arch support or orthotics.
扁平足的特点是没有脚弓,脚底完全或接近完全的贴地。扁平足可以由遗传,也可由外伤,或某种疾病因素如风湿性关节炎引起。扁平足的症状不多,尽管体重因素,不合适的鞋子,或是长时间的站立会引起疼痛。治疗方面包括脚部力量练习以及穿平足鞋或是矫形鞋。
Flatfoot can occur in one or both feet.
扁平足可以是单脚或双脚扁平足
 
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